Vers une étude intégrée des interactions des bactéries et des bactériophages entre eux et avec leurs environnements

Abstract : Bacteria have tremendous adaptation abilities, both physiological and genetic, to their different environments and the stress they may be exposed to. One of the most notable recent disturbances in the bacterial world has been and remains the massive use of antibiotics by Humans. Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are poised to become within a few years the leading cause of death before cancer. If the different mechanisms involved in the adaption of bacteria to antibiotic pressure have been identified in vitro and that these kind of approaches remain essential, the observations made must be confronted with the reality of more complex situations such as those allowed by the analysis of natural microbial communities maintained in microreactor or microcosm setups. Thus, the co-occurrence of phenomena independently identified allows determining which ones prevail under environmental conditions. For example, the reduction of conjugation frequencies by the superinfection immunity phenomenon, which has been observed and described in vitro, is not preponderant during gene transfer between bacteria from natural communities where carriage and pre-adaptation to the transferred genes become rather a selective advantage. The work now under development especially aims at obtaining a more global view of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in natural communities by taking into account phenomena that have been less studied so far, such as transduction by bacteriophages or the impact of bacteria on their own compartmentalizations and fates in natural environments such as rivers.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02366106
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Submitted on : Monday, November 18, 2019 - 3:47:28 PM
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Xavier Bellanger. Vers une étude intégrée des interactions des bactéries et des bactériophages entre eux et avec leurs environnements. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Lorraine; École doctorale BioSE - Biologie, Santé, Environnement, 2019. ⟨tel-02366106⟩

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